Day 8:

Human Anatomy and Physiology


structural composition of the body


Function of a particular organ


A state of equilibrium or balance in the body internal environment maintained by compensating for charges ( feedback and regulation )


Groups of similar cells that work together to perform a special function

There are four basic types of tissue:

Connective: supports and connects all parts of body; includes adipose (fat), cartilage, bone and blood

Epithelial: covers and protects body and mind organs, vessels, and cavities

Muscles: contracts to produce movement

Nerve: Nerve tissue is specialized for intercellular communication by the conduction of electrical impulses and release of chemical messages.

Skeletal System

The skeletal system includes all the bones, plus the connective tissue at the joints. It functions to support the body, provide movement, and protect

the internal organs. Bones also store the minerals phosphorus and calcium, and the marrow of certain bones is the site of hematopoiesis, formation of

blood cells.

Bones: Type of defense connective tissue which consists of bone cells surrounded by hard deposits of calcium salts.

Bone is living tissues with their own network of blood and lymph vessels and nerves, There are 206 bones in the adult skeleton. Bones are classified by their shapes:


               Flat ( ribs )


                Irregular (  vertebrae )

                Long ( femur )


               - Short (carpals )

 Joints:  Junction or union between two or more bones

 Freely movable joints have synovial cavity

Muscular System


    Moves body ( via contraction of muscles cells )

    Maintains posture ( via muscles tone )


    Produces heat ( from muscle cell metabolism )

    Aids in organ function and blood circulation

Skeletal muscles move the skeleton, allowing the vast range of activities that make up daily life. Cardiac muscle pumps the blood for the circulatory system. The primary function of smooth muscle is to regulate the passage of materials through vessels.

   Cardiac muscles: Walls and layers of the heart; used pump blood


   Skeletal muscles: attach to bones; produces movement and joints

   Smooth muscles: Wall of hollow organs; produces peristalsis

Integumentary System

The integumentary system forms the outer covering of the body and includes the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. The principal functions of the integumentary system are protection, thermoregulation (control of body temperature), and sensation.

The skin forms an effective barrier against invasion by microbes and chemicals. Evaporation of sweat from the surface of the skin is the major means by which humans cool themselves.

Sensory cells embedded in the skin allow the brain to receive information about the environment.


Protect the body from bacterial invasion, dehydration, sun rays

Regulate body temperature

Eliminates some waste through sweat

Received environmental stimuli ( heat, cold, touch, pain )

 Skin layers:

Epidermis: Outermost and thinnest later of the skin.

Avascular ( no blood vessels )

Produces skin pigment melanin

Dermis: Inner layer of the skin

Composed of elastic and fibrous connective tissue

Contains blood and lymph vessels oil and sweat glands

Subcutaneous: Connective and adipose tissue; Connects skin to surface muscles

Nervous System

Function is to control and coordinate activities of various body systems by electrical impulses and chemical substances sent and received

Two functions

Somatic: voluntary movement of skeletal muscle

Autonomic: involuntary movement of cardiac and smooth muscles

Central nervous system ( CNS )

Brain and spinal cord

Surrounded and cushioned by cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid

Protected by three layers of connective tissue


Sensory or afferent nerves: Carry impulses to CNS From sensory receptors in various parts of the body

Motor or efferent nerves: Carry impulses from CNS to organs, glands and muscles

Digestive System

The digestive system is responsible for the absorption of nutrients into and the elimination of waste from the digestive tract.

The digestive system includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus, plus the accessory digestive organs, including the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

The purpose of digestion is to break down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed by the intestines. This process includes both mechanical and chemical digestion.


Take in food

Brake food down into usable components for absorption

Eliminate waste products



Gastrointestinal tract: ( mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine )

Accessory organs: ( Lips, teeth, Tongue, Salivary glands, Liver, Pancreas, gallbladder )

Urinary System

The urinary system includes the kidneys, the bladder, and the urethra.

Through the production of urine, its functions is to remove metabolic wastes from the circulation, maintain acid-base balance, and regulate body hydration.

The kidneys also produce hormones that control blood pressure and regulate the production of red blood cells.


Filters waste products from blood

Creates urine

Eliminate waste from body urine

Help regulate body fluids



Kidneys: organ used to filter out waste from body

Ureters: Transport urine from kidney to bladder

Urinary bladder: stores urine prior to voiding

Urethra: Transport urine from bladder to outside of the body

Respiratory System

The respiratory system includes the upper airways (nasal passages and throat) and the lower airways (trachea, larynx, bronchi, and lungs).

It also involves the muscles of respiration in the abdomen, chest, and neck.

The function of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen for use by the body's cells and to expel the carbon dioxide waste from metabolic processes.

The respiratory system relies on the circulatory system to transport gases to and from the lungs.


External Respiration: oxygen from the air enters bloodstream in lungs & carbon dioxide leaves the blood steams and enters air from lungs

Internal Respiration: oxygen needed blood stream & enters cells in tissues and carbon dioxide from sales enters the bloodstream








     Bronchi & Lungs

Ok so now that we have covered the first lesson on Body Systems, lets revise the new terms we leaned on the following quiz.

Use the link below to start your work!